The Kaaba was the first house established for the worship of one God by the Prophet Adam (upon him peace).
Later this place would be visited by every Prophet, this can seen in every Prophets life when they went for forty days.
The Prophet Abraham (upon him peace) re-established this house with his son Ismail (upon him peace). Then it was taken care of by the progeny of Ismail and it was eventually was in care of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessing be upon him) tribe. The tribe that he was born into.
It is the Muslims direction in prayer and the place that Hajj rights are fulfilled, that Abraham first carried out.