There verses in the Quran that allow polyogamy then please see this answer. this was allowed in most world societies and if women did not marry in these times then they would suffer extreme hardship don't forget that women were not allowed to own their own land until the last 50 years in the west.
When in Islam women had rights of ownership.
Yes the caliphs did have excessive partners and slave but this is not part of the practice of the original practice of the companions but this was due to the people in power. Yes many did unislamic things but there are many that did the right thing please read Imam Suyuti Khulfa Rashidoon and you can the good that some caliphs did like Umar ibn Abdulaziz II the great ummayyad caliph who ruled from 717-720.
No there is nothing in the Quran to justify going over the top and this is what they did.
The Quran is not against women consider this that the only woman named in the Quran is Mary mother of Jesus. She is more honoured in the Quran than the bible. There is a story that before she was born her mother made a prayer that she would sacrifice what she had in her belly to Allah/God. And Allah send her a baby girl. Think about this, this was Mary mother of Jesus.
Also the mother of Moses is also honoured as is the Queen Sheba who married the Prophet Suleman. The Quran also states that women will get what they deserve in Heaven as will men. The Quran states in the chapter called "The Woman" [4:32]
"Women shall have a benefit from what they earn. Ask, therefore, God [to give you] out of His bounty: behold, God has indeed full knowledge of everything."
See below for the reward of Muslim women in paradise
Please read the history of Muslims by hodgson called the venture of Islam which is one of the best in the english language.
Please contact me directly and ask me what you like because there where corrupt leaders of Islam but what I have learnt no matter how bad our leaders were the non-Muslim leaders were much worse.