Even now in Non-Muslims have their own courts and laws.
One amazing story about Umar Ibn Khattab who was a companion of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of God be upon him). Umar found a old Jewish man begging he asked him why he was begging? The man said that he had to pay tax. Umar commanded that he be given money from the public funds and scolded the governor of that city. Then put laws into place that old people would receive a wage when they became old. The first pension? This was in the years 634-644.