Thursday, December 31, 2009

Rapper becomes Muslim

Tuesday, December 29, 2009

Saturday, December 19, 2009

Quranites make no sense!

Quranites don't read the Quran! Look at this verse in the chapter of the Women [4:65]

"But no, by the Lord, they can have no (real) Faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against Thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction."

The first part says they do not believe unless they accept his judgement, whose judgement? The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that's who.

This meant initally the people of Mecca who had to accept his judgement and this for us means following the hadith. How else are you are going to follow his judgements if you are not going to follow what he said?

Ponder the first part they do not believe unless - so this part is important because their faith means nothing unless they accept him.

In fact the definition of disbelief is to reject anything that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came with - with a condition that it is clearly defined by
mass transmitted proofs.

I feel sorry for the Quranites because they do not know they do not believe by the actual text they claim to follow!!

Also note that when Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) was asked what was the Messenger of God (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) like? She said he character was like the Quran. No one else was described like this!

About obeying the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)

Friday, December 11, 2009

Wednesday, November 18, 2009

The Mufti and the Reverend

A Mufti sat next to a Reverend on a flight.
The Rev asked the Mufti: What is your occupation?

Mufti: I'm into big business

Rev: But what business exactly?

Mufti: I deal with God

Rev: Ah, so you're a Muslim religious leader. I have one problem with you Muslims: you oppress your women.

Mufti: How do we oppress women?

Rev: You make your women cover up completely and you keep them in the homes.

Mufti: Ah. I have a problem with you people: you oppress MONEY.

Rev: What? How can one oppress money?

Mufti: You keep your money hidden away, in wallets, banks and safes. You keep it covered up. Why don't you display it in public if it's a beautiful thing?

Rev: It will get stolen, obviously.

Mufti: You keep your money hidden because it is so valuable. We value the true worth of women far, far more. Therefore, these precious jewels are not on display to one and all. They are kept in honour and dignity.

Rev: -silence

Source: A post on

Friday, October 30, 2009

Tuesday, October 27, 2009

Thursday, October 15, 2009

Tuesday, August 04, 2009

What would Jesus do?

This is a question christans ask themselves when they are faced with a dilemma. What exactly? Then they say or do as they feel; many times this would not be what others would do; seldomn do they agree. So really this question is a stab in the dark; hoping in vain.

As for the Muslim he does not have to ponder what Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did. All he has to do is open a book about a certain subject and read. He can read a book about subjects of the heart, prayer or acts or worship etc. We have such an amazing wealth of information that reading it would take years. Even if goes straight to hadith like the collection of authentic narrations of Bukhari. The collection is nine volumes, nine large volumes that is not to consider other collections which compliment this one. We have libaries of information.

So we don't ask what would he do; we ask what did he do.

Thursday, July 30, 2009

A question for a Christan?

If a Christan believes that his Lord is merciful; then how could he punish one person for the sins of billions? Does this sound just? To punish one person so he can free the rest from sin? If their lord is able to do all things then why not remove the sins? God can do whatever he wants or does not a Christan think so...

Wednesday, July 15, 2009

Islamic concept of God

Islamic concept of God

Muslims belief in God and this is not unique but some details differ from other religions.

In Islam we understand God to be one but not in a numerical sense. Rather in sense that there is one God and no other. In the chapter of the sincerity or ikhlass we find the negation of eight types of disbelief.

We cannot understand God not according to minds therefore we must look beyond that. We have been given great blessings and the greatest are the Prophets and the Messengers that God sent to us. God has manifest and unbound mercy he has sent us Messengers and Prophets for us to know and understand our place in the world.

Through them we have come to know our creator. The first line in the chapter of sincerity is, “Say: God is one.” Again this is not in a numerical sense because in the Arabic language one is not a number. The numbers start with two not one. We say this to negate other beliefs of multiple deities. We also say that there are no intermediaries to God.

“God is the Sustainer.” We say that all of creation is sustained by God and if it was not for this then we would perish. This also negates anyone who believes that God has created us then left us. This is impossible because if we were abandoned then there would be nothing else that could sustain us. We are sustained with provision and many other things that we need for our existence.

“He was not born nor does he give birth.” I have simplified this translation to make things clear for the reader. This is negates that God posses a human nature because these are the characteristics of creation not creator. This is also further explained by the following verse.

“There is nothing that resembles him.” God according to the Islamic creed was not born because anyone thinks then falls into a loop. Then who created the Lord? Is the next logical answer but we do not accept that here. We say that God was before anything and he is as he was. We believe that God is uncreated and everything else is created.

“There is no one comparable to him.” There is nothing that comes close to any comparison to God. There is God alone and then everything else. As we explained above God is uncreated so any comparison is hopelessly invalid. Why? You can compare like items, for example two pens because they are the same but you cannot compare what is uncreated and what is created. As the uncreated transcends time and space and creation needs time and space. So the comparison is invalid and fruitless. We affirm that God does not need time or space or direction to be because he is the creator of time, space and direction.

This in a nutshell is the Islamic belief about God. We do call God Allah but this does not mean anyone else. This means the creator of all. When we say we believe in Allah we do not mean that there are other deities and ours is called Allah. No, we believe that there is one God called Allah. God is Allah and Allah is God.

We believe that God has delivered messages to mankind in all the different regions of the world who have proclaimed the oneness of God. This was the call that they all shared. The first Prophet was Adam (upon him peace) and the Last is Muhammad (peace and blessings of God be upon him).

So now we understand that God did not leave us alone to find out the purpose of our existence. He sent us Prophets to show us the way and to tell us how to get home. What is our home? Paradise but it is only for the believers. So now we look for the Messenger of our time to follow, which one shall we follow? The final one, the last one, sent to all mankind Muhammad (peace and blessings of God be upon him).


Fiqh Al-Akbar by Abu Hanifa
Quran 112:1
Quran 112:2
Quran 112:3
Sura As-Shura 42:11
Quran 112:4

Tuesday, July 07, 2009

Dr Jerald Dirks

Jesus and Muhammad (peace and blessings of God be upon them both) part 1-8

Saturday, May 16, 2009

How Hadith was recorded

This is a link to an article that explains how hadith was recorded through various stages of History. Check it out.

Thursday, May 07, 2009

Gary Miller and Jimmy Swaggart

Place of scripture in Christanity and Islam

Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Moon idol and Islam?

This is another fabrication. The Christians claim that hubal an old idol was a moon. This is a great fabrication of the truth. If you watch the film the message it clearly shows hubal as being a large red warrior like figure. In the book Foreign policy of the Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) he is described as, "Hubal, the figure of a man carved in red agate and holding seven wingless arrows in his hands." p.11

Also when the one of the pagan Quresh taunted the Muslims with the battle cry was, "Hubal, show your superiority!" (Ibid p. 209)

So this cleary states that it was not a idol of the moon. In fact Islam is a new religion. Also note all the pagan Quresh were horriffed about this new religion, if it was an old pagan symbol then why would the pagans have such a problem with it? Answer is that it was something new a religion without the old paganism. A new religion from the legacy of all the Prophets (upon them all peace.)

Sunday, March 22, 2009

A Christians questions 3

So the Christian did not like the fact that I had used logic to explain that the Trinity was illogical but I said that I should prove my points using the Bible and some Historical sources.

Jesus (upon him peace) said, "Do not think that I came to destroy the law or the Prophets. I did not come to destory but to fulfill." Mathew 5:17-18

You already know that I am going to refute Christanity so why are you suprised?

The whole problem with modern Christan faith is that it's is based on blind faith. Which can easily be disproved without logic so now lets disprove Christanity without logic and proofs from the Bible.

The Christan belief negates the first two commandments that all the prophets lived and died upon. This is also the belief of Jesus:

Mathew 4, 10, "Then Jesus said to him... Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God , and him alone shalt thou serve."

So this proves that there is one God and no sons him alone shall you serve.
Mathew 19, 18, "keep the commandments."

“If you want to enter life, obey the commandments.” (Matthew 19:17, also see Mark 10:19).

He also said that Jesus is the servant of that God, for we read in Acts:

“The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his servant Jesus.” (Acts 3:13).

This confirms his belief in what came before and what will be so anyone believing in the Trinity is believing something other that what Jesus himself believed. And the verse we began with proves without a shadow of a doubt that Jesus (upon him peace) believed in the commandments that modern Christans do not.

Historical facts:

Jesus (upon him peace) was called king of the Jews(Mathew 23.38), Mark 16, 26. Why? If was living differently then he would've called something else. This also proves he had the same beliefs of them. Now compare this to the pauls version which has no place for the law.

From Mark of the beast by Tim Wallace murphy and Ravenscroft page 79. "Paul joined the ebionite community in Jerusalam to learn the true way of Jesus"

Then "It is clear that there was a fundemental difference between the way as interpreted by James and the Edionties on one hand, and that preached by paul on the other." Tim wallace murphy - What Islam did for us page 59

Also aruis rejected and refused the pagan interpretations of paul.
The Trinity is not a teaching of Jesus or of the early Christians. As noted previously, it is “a teaching of the church.” In its 1999 issue on the Trinity, The Living Pulpit observed: “Sometimes, it seems that everyone assumes that the doctrine of the trinity is standard Christian theological fare,” but it added that it is not “a biblical idea.”

The New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967) discusses the Trinity at length and admits: “The Trinitarian dogma is in the last analysis a late 4th-century invention. . . . The formulation ‘one God in three Persons’ was not solidly established, certainly not fully assimilated into Christian life and its profession of faith, prior to the end of the 4th century.”

The Bible tells of many gods and goddesses that people worshiped, including Ashtoreth, Milcom, Chemosh, and Molech. (1 Kings 11:1, 2, 5, 7) Even many people in the ancient nation of Israel once believed that Baal was the true God. So Jehovah’s prophet Elijah presented the challenge: “If Jehovah is the true God, go following him; but if Baal is, go following him.”—1 Kings 18:21.

The worship of pagan gods grouped in threes, or triads, was also common before Jesus was born. “From Egypt came the ideas of a divine trinity,” observed historian Will Durant. In the Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, James Hastings wrote: “In Indian religion, e.g., we meet with the trinitarian group of Brahmā, Siva, and Viṣṇu; and in Egyptian religion with the trinitarian group of Osiris, Isis, and Horus.”

So I have proved my point with logic but now with proof from the Bible and history, so for much longer will you deny these points?

The religion of Christanity was made up from different parts of paganism and this has nothing to with the religion of Jesus (upon him peace). As Jesus and all the Prophets had the same belief.

If you want to debate with me then you are welcome but know I am quite skilled in this field. The Last Christan three christans who debated with me are now studying Islam to find out the Truth.

Monday, March 09, 2009

Abu Hanifa and some Athiests

Abu Hanifa and some Athiests

Some athiests once questioned Imam Abu Hanifa (may Allah be pleased with him) what proof he had of the existance of the creator (mighty and majestic), and they said he had to convince them or suffer.

He told them, "Leave me alone! I must think about a strange event that has been reported to me. I have been told that there is a ship at sea, heavily laden with various kinds of merchandise; and although there is no one on board to steer and guard her, it comes and goes by herself, ploughing through enormous waves and going where she pleases."

They told him, "No intelligent man would say such a thing."

He replied, "Wretches! And yet you say that all these existant beings, in the higher and lower worlds, and every intricately precise thing they contain, have no maker?"

At this they were dumbfounded, and, returning to the truth, they entered Islam at his hands.

Wednesday, February 25, 2009

There is one God

A letter to Christians in the Ukraine
25 June 1995 © Nuh Ha Mim Keller 1995

In the name of God, Most Merciful and Compassionate

Dear Brothers and Sisters in the Ukraine: Greetings of Peace.

My friend Usama al-Majdhub of Damascus called this morning and asked me to answer a question he had heard from some people in the Ukraine. He is flying to Kiev tomorrow, and wanted to pick up the answer tonight. To introduce myself, I am an American living in Jordan who converted from Christianity to Islam some years ago. My thoughts on this subject are many, but my answer can only be brief, so please excuse the shortcomings you find in it. The question Usama related to me was: "As Christians, we believe in One God, and that Jesus is God. Why then do Muslims say we will go to hell?"

In answer, we may note that both you as Christians, and we as Muslims, hold that a human being must believe in One God to attain salvation in the next world. God, for Muslims, is one in being without partner, unique without peer, ultimate without opposite, alone without equal. He is the Master of All Existence, the Creator of time, space, matter, and energy, of the physical and spiritual worlds, and of all else. All that is, exists through Him, while He needs absolutely nothing through which to exist, and has no need of any of His creation, for if He were to need something, He would be lacking, not perfect, and something imperfect could never be God.

In this respect, He is quite different from anything in the universe that He has created, whether earth, sky, land, or sea, because it all exists only through His creative act, and if this were to stop for a moment, they would simply disappear entirely.
To "believe in God" means to believe in His existence, His oneness, that He has all attributes of perfection, and is exalted above any imperfection. Now, if we were to discover a group of people somewhere and asked them about their religion, and they said, "We believe in the One God, Lord of Everything," we would agree with this. But suppose after being asked for more details, they said, "We are very fortunate in that God lives right here. In fact, He is that mountain over there. That mountain is God Incarnate." Now these people are sincere, and they believe in One God, whom they worship. Yet this is not in itself sufficient, because they have mixed their belief in the One God with something that is not God; namely, thousands of tons of rock making up the mountain, which relies for its existence upon such things as the atmospheric pressure upon it, the gravity that holds it to the earth, the structural strength of its component parts-in all of which the mountain is a physical entity bound by time, space, matter, and energy; bound by a thousand constraints. A single asteroid from space, disrupting these, would leave nothing of the mountain except a memory.

It is plain, upon reflection, that all created things are like the mountain in this respect: radically dependent upon the circumstances around them. Because of their essential need, they cannot in any sense be God, who is the Lord of Existence, the Creator of time and space and all the rest, who rules these things and is not ruled by them.

Someone who affirms the One God, but identifies Him with some particular thing in the universe, such as a mountain, a tree, or a human being, has associated something with God that is not of Him. Muslims believe that God's divine message to all the prophets-from Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and all the others, to Jesus and Muhammad-was to declare the pure Divine Oneness, and free mankind from associating others with God. The prophets (upon whom be peace) were sent by God to teach people that it is His right to be worshipped as He is: One, without admixture of anything else with Him. Indeed, He created mankind that they might know and worship Him in this way.

Each messenger came to tell us that God alone has the right to be worshipped, that all we were worshipping besides Him must now be left aside, because it is other than Him, and only a physical manifestation of His almighty power, whether it be a mountain, a star, or even Jesus Christ.

As to my own upbringing, I was raised as a Christian, and in catechism class we were taught the question and answer:

Q. What is the chief teaching of the Catholic Church about Jesus Christ?
A. The chief teaching of the Catholic Church about Jesus Christ is that He is God made man. (A Catechism of Christian Doctrine: Revised Edition of the Baltimore Catechism, No. 2. Paterson, New Jersey: St. Anthony Guild Press, 1941, 15)

But when I later went to a Catholic university, I could not help reflecting that man was limitary and finite, while God was not, and I asked myself why I believed that Jesus was God.

If one could point in answer to the scriptures, I found that modern textual studies of the New Testament had raised large question marks as to that book's authenticity. In a course in theology, I read a work by Joachim Jeremias, one of the foremost exegetes of the New Testament in this century, who after a lifetime of study of the original, finally agreed with the German theologian Rudolph Bultmann that "without a doubt it is true to say that the dream of ever writing a biography of Jesus is over" (The Problem of the Historical Jesus, Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1972, 12), meaning that even the chronology of the life of Jesus could not be established from the New Testament. So how then, I wondered, with the question of whether or not he was God?

Indeed, although ordinary Christians seem quite unaware of the revolution that has taken place in New Testament scholarship by Christians over the past thirty years, if we look at the literature, we find such paragraphs as the following, from a textbook by James D.G. Dunn for university students in their third year of New Testament studies. The italics are his: Similarly the thought of Jesus' deity seems to be a relatively late arrival on the first-century stage. Paul does not yet understand the risen Christ as the object of worship: he is the theme of worship, the one for whom praise is given, the one whose risen presence in and through the Spirit constitutes the worshipping community, the one through whom the prayer prays to God (Romans 1.8; 7.25; II Corinthians 1.20; Colossians 3.17) but not the object of worship or prayer. So too his reticence about calling Jesus "God". Even the title "Lord" becomes a way of distinguishing Jesus from God rather than identifying him with # God (Romans 15.6; I Corinthians 8.6; 15.24-28; II Corinthians 1.3; 11.31; Ephesians 1.3, 17; Philippians 2.11; Colossians 1.3). Paul was and remained a monotheist. That reticence in calling Jesus "God" is only really overcome towards the end of the first century with the Pastorals (Titus 2.13) and again with Fourth Gospel (John 1.1, 18; 20.28). (Unity and Diversity in the New Testament: An Inquiry into the Character of Earliest Christianity. London and Philadelphia: SCM Press and Trinity Press International, 1990, 226).

If the "thought of Jesus" deity"-which I had been taught was the chief teaching of Christianity about Jesus-was "a relatively late arrival on the first-century stage," meaning not taught by Jesus himself, then we might legitimately wonder where it came from. The answer seems to lie in the "Imperial cult" proclaimed throughout the Roman Empire shortly before the era of Jesus, a cult which enjoined the worship of Rome and the emperor. In the words of Hugh Schonfield, a translator of the New Testament, The cult had developed in the reign of Augustus [Ceasar], who for reasons of State policy accepted deification, and authorised the building of temples in which he was worshipped. He was formally decreed Son of God (Divi Filius) by the Senate. . . .

Gaius Caligula (A.D. 37-41) [also] became obsessed with the notion of his deity, and his sycophantic officials played up to him. . . .

A later emperor, Domitian (A.D. 81-96), insisted that his governors commence their letters to him, "Our Lord and our God commands." It became the rule, says [the Roman historian] Suetonius, "that no one should style him otherwise in writing or speaking."

Among Gentile believers in Jesus as the true emperor it was not possible to hold him to be inferior in dignity to Caesar. So we find in the Gospels the term Son of God (the Imperial Divi Filius) conjoined with the Jewish royal title of Messiah. The late Gospel of John, composed not long after the reign of Domitian, even borrows the words of address which that emperor demanded, and makes Thomas address Jesus as "My Lord and my God [John 20.28]." (The Passover Plot, Shaftesbury: Element Books, 1993, 199-200).

If the idea of Jesus being God was not part of original Christianity, but only an accretion added to it later, this was still (for me) secondary to the fact that Jesus' deification contradicts the nature of God. God is absolutely free of need for anything He has created, while the historical Jesus, as a human with a body, needed time and space, and was bound by a thousand other necessities. I left Christianity because I clearly saw that the two natures, divine and human, are mutually exclusive, like that of a circle and a square. To ask whether God can "become a human being" is like asking if God can "create a square circle"-that is, they refer to nothing meaningful, such that we could ask if it could exist, but rather are a simple confusion of words.

To answer your original question, returning to the example of the people worshipping the One God, while identifying Him with their local mountain, the question of whether they will go to hell is answered by Islam according to two possibilities:

(1) There are some peoples who have not been reached by the message of one of the prophets of God that we must worship the One God alone, associating nothing else with Him. Such people are innocent, and will not be punished no matter what they do. As the Koran says, "We do not punish until We send a Messenger" (Koran 17:15). These include, for example, the Christians who lived in the period after the spread of the myth of Jesus' deification until the time of the next messenger, the prophet Muhammad (God bless him and give him peace), who renewed the call to the pure, original religion of all the prophets: "Your God is One; none has a right to be worshipped with Him."

A great Muslim scholar, al-Ghazali, adds to this category of people those who have only been reached with a distorted picture of Islam. In al-Ghazali's view, such people are excused until after they have had an opportunity to learn the truth (Faysal al-tafriqa, Majmu'a rasa'il al-Imam al-Ghazali, 3.96).

(2) A second group of people consists of those who turn away from God's divine message of monotheism, rejecting the command to make their worship God's alone; whether because of blindly imitating the religion of their ancestors, or for some other reason. These are people to whom God has sent a prophetic messenger and reached with His message, and to whom He has given hearing and an intellect with which to grasp it-but after all this, persist in associating others with Allah. Such people have violated God's rights, and have accepted to go to hell, which is precisely what His messengers have warned them of, and because of which, they have no excuse:

"Truly, Allah does not forgive that any be associated with Him in worship; but He forgives what is less than that to whomever He wills" (Koran 4:48).
I hope you find this answer sufficiently clear and detailed.
I remain at your service,

sincerely yours,

[Nuh Ha Mim Keller]

Monday, February 09, 2009

A Christans questions part two

His questions

Thanks for getting back. I know we are not going to agree on the death and resurrection of Jesus and you know that I do not agree that worshiping Jesus is polytheism - since the Father and Jesus are one.

In John 20 Thomas who like you didn't believe in the resurrection met the resurrcted Jesus. He then got on his knees and declared Jesus to be "My Lord and my God!" Jesus' reply was not - "Wait on there Thomas - you are falling out of the frying pan of disbelieve into the fire of herresy!" No it was "How slow you are to believe". Jesus accepted the ultimate worship - the declaration of "My Lord and my God!" Unless Jesus is God then Jesus could not even be considered as a prophet.

I was interested that you state that Christianity has 'no more importance' because it has been rejected by Western Societies. Western societies have rejected religion and God per se - not just Christianity - so the Muslim faith is in the same boat in this one. Your argument suggests that if it has been rejected by one particular culture then this in some way disproves Christianity as being true. In fact there are more people who profess to be Christians in the world (2.1 billion) then there are Muslim (1.5 billion). [Christianity in the largest populated country in the world (China) is growing fast]. This means that more people in the world have rejected the Muslim faith than Christianity.

However, this still proves nothing: Western culture have accepted homosexuality as being acceptable - this doesn't make its attitude true!

Thank you for your very interesting point about how Jesus and the Prophets prayed - I think laying prostrate on the ground is a good way of praying, (there is a real reverence in this!) but not the only way. In John 17 v1 for example, Jesus 'looked toward heaven and prayed'.


Our response

Dear Brother

In Islam the understanding of God makes logical sense which is something that cannot be found in Christanity, as it illogical on every level, please let me explain.

In Islam,

a) God is uncreated

b) is all powerful

c) everything is in need of him and he needs nothing

d) there is nothing like God in existance

e) it is in line with the belief of all the Prophets (peace be upon him)

In Christanity You say that God and Jesus are one but at the end of your email you said that Jesus looked to the heavens and supplicated. John 17 v1 for example, Jesus 'looked toward heaven and prayed'.

Now if they are one why would he feel the need to look up and supplicate? This is illogical because if I have a pain in my foot then the foot does tell me that I need to examine the pain, I know straight away. This disproved that they are one being.

The second commandment states not to make and idol of God now you are saying that they are one, so the Christan belief negates God's own law!

Third, you belief that God needed the following:

a) a woman to bear part of him,

b) that he had an adolensence,

c) he needs to eat

d) he needs to go to toilet

e) he needs to wash his body

f) he needs to comb his hair

So you belief that this is your God? This sounds like a human being NOT GOD.

Most Christans that I have met do not look seriously or logically at their religion it is blind belief without the necessary back up of logic.

Many Christan preists have written essays on how the Muslim religion has a great number of worshippers in their congrejations like on the friday prayer. Some have said that they wished they had as many worshippers as the Muslims do on friday. Nevermind the amount of worshippers on the Eid prayers.

Christans count athiests as part of their religion as well, which no other religion do. Most people in the Uk, US and Europe are athiests who do not conform to any religion.

As for Islam it contines to grow yearly as more people come into Islam and of course the birth rates play a part in this. So even if you accept that the smaller number is wrong and the larger number is right, then Jesus himself was wrong because he has about 12 followers in his lifetime and most people were pagans.

There are very few Christans who are honest with me when debating even when they are presented with these facts which to any inteligent thinking person would accept straight away.

Peace out

Sunday, February 01, 2009

Sunday, January 25, 2009

Biography of the Last Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)

Biography Of Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh)
Dr. A. Zahoor And Dr. Z. Haq
(Copyright 1990, 1997, 1998 All Rights Reserved)

Prophet Muhammad (s) was born in 570 CE in Makkah (Bakka, Baca, Mecca). His father, Abdullah, died several weeks before his birth in Yathrib (Medinah) where he went to visit his father's maternal relatives. His mother died while on the return journey from Medinah at a place called ‘Abwa’ when he was six years old. He was raised by his paternal grandfather 'Abd al Muttalib (Shaybah) until the age of eight, and after his grandfather’s death by Abu Talib, his paternal uncle. 'Abd al Muttalib's mother, Salma, was a native of Medinah and he was born and raised as a young boy in Medinah before his uncle Muttalib brought him to Makkah to succeed him. Many years before Muhammad's birth, 'Abd al Muttalib had established himself as an influential leader of the Arab tribe ‘Quraish’ in Makkah and took care of the Holy sanctuary ‘Ka’bah’. Makkah was a city state well connected to the caravan routes to Syria and Egypt in the north and northwest and Yemen in the south. Muhammad was a descendant of Prophet Ismail through the lineage of his second son Kedar.

Ka'bah is the first house of worship built on earth for the worship of Allah, the One True God. It was re-built (raised from the existing foundation) by Prophets Ibrahim (Abraham) and Ismail (Ishmael). Allah is the proper name of the One True God, creator and sustainer of the universe, who does not have a partner or associate, and He did not beget nor was He begotten. Unlike the word god, the word Allah does not have a plural or gender.

Under the guardianship of Abu Talib, Muhammad (s) began to earn a living as a businessman and a trader. At the age of twelve, he accompanied Abu Talib with a merchant caravan as far as Bostra in Syria. Muhammad was popularly known as ‘al-Ameen’ for his unimpeachable character by the Makkans and visitors alike. The title Al-Ameen means the Honest, the Reliable and the Trustworthy, and it signified the highest standard of moral and public life.

Upon hearing of Muhammad’s impressive credentials, Khadijah, a rich merchant widow, asked Muhammad (s) to take some merchandise for trade to Syria. Soon after this trip when he was twenty-five, Khadijah proposed marriage to Muhammad through a relative. Muhammad accepted the proposal. At that time, Khadijah was twice widowed and forty years old. Khadijah (ra) and Muhammad (s) were the parents of six children - four daughters and two sons. His first son Qasim died at the age of two. He was nicknamed Abul Qasim, meaning the father of Qasim. His second son Abdullah died in infancy. Abdullah was also called affectionately as ‘Tayyab’ and ‘Tahir’ because he was born after Muhammad’s prophethood. The four daughters were: Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatimah (ra).

The Holy sanctuary Ka’bah was now filled with three hundred sixty idols. The original, pristine message of Prophet Ibrahim was lost, and it was mixed with superstitions and traditions of pilgrims and visitors from distant places, who were used to idol worship and myths. In every generation, a small group of men and women detested the pollution of Ka’bah and kept pure their practice of the religion taught by Prophets Ibrahim and Ismail. They used to spend some of their time away from this polluted environment in retreats to nearby hills.

Muhammad (s) was forty when, during his one of many retreats to Mount Hira for meditation during the month of Ramadan, he received the first revelation from the Archangel Jibril (Gabriel). On this first appearance, Gabriel (as) said to Muhammad: "Iqraa," meaning Read or Recite. Muhammad replied, "I cannot read," as he had not received any formal education and did not know how to read or write. The Angel Gabriel then embraced him until he reached the limit of his endurance and after releasing said: "Iqraa." Muhammad’s answer was the same as before. Gabriel repeated the embrace for the third time, asked him to repeat after him and said:

"Recite in the name of your Lord who created! He created man from that which clings. Recite; and thy Lord is most Bountiful, He who has taught by the pen, taught man what he knew not."
These revelations are the first five verses of Surah (chapter) 96 of the Qur’an. Thus it was in the year 610 CE the revelation began.

Muhammad (s) was terrified by the whole experience of the revelation and fled the cave of Mt. Hira [Qur'an 81:19-29]. When he reached his home, tired and frightened, he asked his wife: ‘cover me, cover me,’ in a blanket. After his awe had somewhat abated, his wife Khadijah asked him about the reason of his great anxiety and fear. She then assured him by saying: "Allah (The One God) will not let you down because you are kind to relatives, you speak only the truth, you help the poor, the orphan and the needy, and you are an honest man." Khadijah then consulted with her cousin Waraqa who was an old, saintly man possessing knowledge of previous revelations and scriptures. Waraqa confirmed to her that the visitor was none other than the Angel Gabriel who had come to Moses. He then added that Muhammad is the expected Prophet. Khadijah accepted the revelation as truth and was the first person to accept Islam. She supported her husband in every hardship, most notably during the three-year ‘boycott’ of the Prophet’s clan by the pagan Quraish. She died at the age of sixty-five in the month of Ramadan soon after the lifting of the boycott in 620 CE.

Gabriel (as) visited the Prophet as commanded by Allah revealing Ayat (meaning signs, loosely referred to as verses) in Arabic over a period of twenty-three years. The revelations that he received were sometimes a few verses, a part of a chapter or the whole chapter. Some revelations came down in response to an inquiry by the nonbelievers. The revealed verses were recorded on a variety of available materials (leather, palm leaves, bark, shoulder bones of animals), memorized as soon as they were revealed, and were recited in daily prayers by Muslims [Qur'an 80:13-16]. Angel Gabriel taught the order and arrangement of verses, and the Prophet instructed his several scribes to record verses in that order [Qur'an 75:16-19 and 41:41-42]. Once a year, the Prophet used to recite all the verses revealed to him up to that time to Gabriel to authenticate the accuracy of recitation and the order of verses [Qur'an 175:106]. All the revealed verses (over a period of 23 years and ending in 632 CE) were compiled in the book known as Qur’an. The name Qur’an appears in the revealed verses. The Qur’an does not contain even a word from the Prophet. The Qur'an speaks in the first person, i.e., Allah's commandments to His creation. Gabriel also visited the Prophet throughout his mission informing and teaching him of events and strategy as needed to help in the completion of the prophetic mission. The Prophet’s sayings, actions, and approvals are recorded separately in collections known as Hadith.

The mission of Prophet Muhammad (s) was to restore the worship of the One True God, the creator and sustainer of the universe, as taught by Prophet Ibrahim and all Prophets of God, and to demonstrate and complete the laws of moral, ethical, legal, and social conduct and all other matters of significance for the humanity at large.

The first few people who followed this message were: his cousin Ali, his servant Zayd ibn Harithah, his friend Abu Bakr and his wife and daughters. They accepted Islam by testifying that:

"There is no Deity (worthy of worship) except Allah (The One True God) and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."
Islam means peace by submission and obedience to the Will and Commandments of God and those who accept Islam are called Muslims, meaning those who have accepted the message of peace by submission to God.

In the first three years of his mission forty people (men and women) accepted Islam. This small group comprised of youth as well as older people from a wide range of economic and social background. The Prophet was directed by a recent revelation to start preaching Islam to everyone. He then began to recite revelations to people in public and invite them to Islam. The Quraish, leaders of Makkah, took his preaching with hostility. The most hostile and closest to the prophet was his uncle Abu Lahab and his wife. Initially, they and other leaders of Quraish tried to bribe him with money and power including an offer to make him king if he were to abandon his message. When this did not work, they tried to convince his uncle Abu Talib to accept the best young man of Makkah in place of Muhammad and to allow them to kill Muhammad. His uncle tried to persuade the Prophet to stop preaching but the Prophet said: "O uncle, if they were to put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left hand to stop me from preaching Islam, I would never stop. I will keep preaching until Allah makes Islam prevail or I die."

The Quraish began to persecute Muslims by beating, torture and boycott of their businesses. Those who were weak, poor or slaves were publicly tortured. The first person to die by this means was a Muslim women by the name Umm Ammar (the mother of Ammar Ibn Yasir). The Muslims from well-to-do families were physically restrained in their homes with the condition that if they recant they will be allowed freedom of movement. The Prophet was publicly ridiculed and humiliated including frequent throwing of filth on him in the street and while he prayed in the Ka’bah. In spite of great hardships and no apparent support, the message of Islam kept all Muslims firm in their belief. The Prophet was asked by God to be patient and to preach the message of Qur’an. He advised Muslims to remain patient because he did not receive any revelation yet to retaliate against their persecutors. [Persecution]

When the persecution became unbearable for most Muslims, the Prophet advised them in the fifth year of his mission (615 CE) to emigrate to Abyssinia (modern Ethiopia) where Ashabah (Negus, a Christian) was the ruler. Eighty people, not counting the small children, emigrated in small groups to avoid detection. No sooner had they left the Arabian coastline, the leaders of Quraish discovered their flight. They decided to not leave these Muslims in peace, and immediately sent two of their envoys to Negus to bring all of them back. However, Negus allowed them to stay under his protection after he investigated Muslim belief and heard the revelations about Jesus and Mary (peace be upon them both), which appears in Chapter 19, entitled Mary, of the Qur’an. The emigrants were allowed freedom of worship in Abyssinia.

The Quraish then made life even more difficult for the Prophet by implementing total ban on contact with the Prophet’s family (Bani Hashim and Muttalib). The ban lasted for three years without the desired effect. Just before the ban was lifted, the Prophet was contacted by the leaders of Quraish to agree to a compromise under which they should all practice both religions (i.e., Islam and Idolatry). Upon hearing this, the Prophet recited a revelation (Chapter 109) he had just received and which ends with the words: "... For you your religion and for me mine." The ban was lifted when leaders of Quraish discovered that their secret document on the terms of ban, which they had stored in Ka’bah, was eaten by worms and all that was left were the opening words ‘In Your name, O Allah.’ The effects of the three-year boycott left the Prophet with more personal sorrow when he lost his beloved wife Khadijah (ra) and uncle Abu Talib soon after the ban was lifted.

After Khadijah's death in 620 CE, the Prophet married a widowed Muslim woman, Sawdah (ra) who was fifty years old. She and her husband had emigrated to Abyssinia in the early years of persecution. After her husband died, she came back to Makkah and sought Prophet’s shelter. The Prophet, recognizing her sacrifices for Islam, extended his shelter by marrying her. Later in the same year, the Prophet upon receiving the divine command in a dream, after approval of Sawdah, contracted marriage to A’ishah, the daughter of his dear companion Abu Bakr. She joined the Prophet in Medinah, completing the marriage contract. Sawdah and A’ishah (ra) were the only wives until he was fifty-six years old.

After the death of his uncle Abu Talib, the Prophet went to Taif (about 50 miles east, southeast of Makkah) to seek their protection. They flatly refused and mocked at him, and severely injured him by inciting their children to throw stones at him. Gabriel (as) visited the Prophet here suggesting that the angels were ready to destroy the town if he were to ask Allah for the punishment. Nevertheless, the Prophet declined and prayed for future generations of Taif to accept Islam [Taif]. It was on the return journey from Taif that the verses from Surah Al Jinn (Chapter 72) were revealed. It indicated that the Qur’an is a book of guidance to both the Jinns and Humankind.

Soon after the terrible disappointment at Ta’if, the prophet experienced the events of al-Israa and al-Miraaj (621 CE). In the Al-Israa, Gabriel (as) took the Prophet from the sacred Mosque near Ka’bah to the furthest (al-Aqsa) mosque in Jerusalem in a very short time in the latter part of a night. Here, Prophet Muhammad met with previous Prophets (Abraham, Moses, Jesus and others) and he led them in prayer. After this, in Al-Miraj, the Prophet was taken up to heavens to show the signs of God [More... The Dome of the Rock]. It was on this journey that five daily prayers were prescribed. He was then taken back to Ka’bah, the whole experience lasting a few hours of a night. Upon hearing this, the people of Makkah mocked at him. However, when his specific description of Jerusalem, other things on the way, and the caravan that he saw on this journey including its expected arrival in Makkah turned out to be true, the ridicule of the nonbelievers stopped. The event of Israa and Miraaj is mentioned in the Qur’an - the first verse of Chapter 17 entitled ‘The Children of Israel.’

In 622 CE, the leaders of the Quraish decided to kill the Prophet and they developed a plan in which one man was chosen from each of the Quraish tribes and they were to attack the Prophet simultaneously. Gabriel informed the Prophet of the plan and instructed him to leave Makkah immediately. The Prophet, after making arrangements to return the properties entrusted to him by several nonbelievers, left with Abu Bakr in the night he was to be assassinated. They went south of Makkah to a mountain cave of Thawr [see Qur'an 9:40], and after staying three nights they traveled north to Yathrib (Medinah) about two hundred fifty miles from Makkah. Upon discovery of his escape, the leaders of Quraish put up a reward of one hundred camels on him, dead or alive. In spite of all their best scouts and search parties, Allah protected the Prophet and he arrived safely in Quba, a suburb of Medinah [Qur'an 28:85]. This event is known as the ‘Hijra’ (migration) and the Islamic calendar begins with this event. The people of Aws and Khazraj in Medinah greeted him with great enthusiasm in accordance with their pledge made at Aqaba less than a year ago during the annual pilgrimage. One by one those Muslims (men and women) of Makkah who were not physically restrained, and who could make a secret exit, left for Medinah leaving behind their properties and homes.

To insure the peace and tranquility, the Prophet proposed a treaty defining terms of conduct for all inhabitants of Medinah. It was ratified by all - Muslims, non-Muslim Arabs and Jews. After his emigration to Medinah, the enemies of Islam increased their assault from all sides. The Battles of Badr, Uhud and Allies (Trench) were fought near or around Medinah. In these battles until the year 627 CE, the nonbelievers with encouragement from Jews and other Arabian tribes attacked the Prophet and Muslim community. The Muslims while defending their city and religion lost many men, which resulted in many widowed Muslim women and numerous orphaned children. In these circumstances, Prophet Muhammad (s) married several women during fifty-sixth year up to the sixtieth year of his life. He did not contract any marriage in the last three years of his life, following the revelation limiting the number of wives up to a maximum of four. This is the first time in the history of revealed scriptures that a limit on the number of wives was imposed and the terms of conduct were specified. The Prophet was instructed not to divorce any of his wives after this revelation [Qur'an 33:52]. All of the ladies he took as wives were either widowed or divorced, except A’ishah.

The Prophet married Umm Salamah (ra) in 626 CE. Her husband had died of wounds inflicted in the Battle of Uhud (625 CE). When the Prophet asked her for marriage, she replied: "O Messenger of God, I suffer from three shortcomings. I am a very jealous woman, and I am afraid this might cause me to do things that you dislike. Secondly, I am an old woman. Finally, I have many children." The Prophet answered: "Regarding your jealousy, I pray to God to remove it from you. As for your age, we are similar in age. As for the children, your children are mine." Thus it was that she agreed to marry the Prophet. The Prophet’s marriage contract with Umm Habibah (ra) was solemnized, by proxy, by Negus, King of Abyssinia, in 628 CE.

Two of his wives, Juwayriah and Safiyah, were prisoners of war. Both belonged to the family of the chief of their tribes and were set free by the Prophet; they then gladly accepted Islam and were pleased to become the Prophet’s wives. The Prophet’s marriages provided security to women who would have otherwise remained unmarried, unprotected, or felt humiliated. His marriages were also a means of transmitting important teachings of Islam. The Prophet's wives, called the "Mothers of the Believers,"[Qur'an Surah 33, Verse 6 and the last part of Verse 53] showed themselves as examples of proper Muslim womanhood. All his wives, especially 'Aishah, transmitted many ahadith (sayings, deeds, and actions) from Prophet Muhammad (s).

A year after the Battle of Allies (Trench), the Prophet and fifteen hundred of his companions left for Makkah to perform the annual pilgrimage (628 CE). They were barred from approaching the city at Hudaybiyah, where after some negotiations a treaty was signed allowing for them to come next year. This treaty facilitated exchange of ideas among the people of the whole region without interference. Many delegations from all regions of Arabia came to the Prophet to investigate the teachings of Islam, and a large number of people accepted Islam within a couple of years. The Prophet sent many of his companions (who memorized the Qur'an by heart) to new communities to instruct them about the practice of Islam. More than fifty of them were murdered by non-believers.

A few weeks after Hudaybiyah the Prophet sent letters to several kings and rulers (including the two superpowers - Byzantines and Persians) inviting them to Islam. Negus, the king of Abyssinia, and the Ruler of Bahrain accepted Islam, and Emperor Heraclius acknowledged Muhammad’s Prophethood. Among rulers who accepted Islam but without any initiative from the Prophet was Chakrawati Farmas, a Hindu King of Malabar (located on the southwest coast of India).

About two years later at the end of 629 CE, the Quraish violated the terms of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah by helping Banu Bakr in the surprise attack on Bani Khuza’ah who were allied with the Prophet. Some of Bani Khuzah’s men escaped and took shelter in Makkah and they sought redress. However, the leaders of Quraish did nothing. They then sent a message to the Prophet for help.

The Prophet, after confirming all the reports of the attack and subsequent events, marched to Makkah with an army consisting of three thousand Muslims of Medinah and Muslims from other Arab communities that joined him on the way totaling ten thousand Muslims. Before entering the city he sent word to citizens of Makkah that anyone who remained in his home, or in Abu Sufyan’s home, or in the Ka’bah would be safe. The army entered Makkah without fighting and the Prophet went directly to the Ka’bah. He magnified Allah for the triumphant entry in the Holy city. The Prophet pointed at each idol with a stick he had in his hand and said, "Truth has come and Falsehood will neither start nor will it reappear" [Qur'an 17:81]. And one by one the idols fell down. The Ka’bah was then cleansed by the removal of all three hundred sixty idols, and it was restored to its pristine status for the worship of One True God (as built by Prophets Ibrahim and Ismail).

The people of the city expected general slaughter in view of their persecution and torture of Muslims for the past twenty years. While standing by the Ka'bah, the Prophet (s) promised clemency for the Makkans, stating: "O Quraish, what do you think that I am about to do with you?" They replied, "Good. You are a noble brother, son of a noble brother." The Prophet forgave them all saying:

"I will treat you as Prophet Yousuf (Joseph) treated his brothers. There is no reproach against you. Go to your homes, and you are all free."
The Prophet also declared:

Allah made Makkah holy the day He created heavens and earth, and it is the holy of holies until the Resurrection Day. It is not lawful for anyone who believes in Allah and the last day to shed blood therein, nor to cut down trees therein. It was not lawful to anyone before me and it will not be lawful to anyone after me.
The people of Makkah then accepted Islam including the staunch enemies of the Prophet. A few of the staunchest enemies and military commanders had fled Makkah after his entry. However, when they received the Prophet’s assurance of no retaliation and no compulsion in religion, they came back and gradually the message of Islam won their hearts. Within a year (630 CE), almost all Arabia accepted Islam. Among the Prophet’s close companions were Muslims from such diverse background as Persia, Abyssinia, Syria and Rome. Several prominent Jewish Rabbis, Christian bishop and clergymen accepted Islam after discussions with the Prophet.

One night in March 630 CE, Angel Gabriel visited the Prophet and addressed him as: “O father of Ibrahim." A few hours later, the Prophet received the news of the birth of his son from his wife Mariah, and the Prophet named him Ibrahim. He was the only child born after the six children from Prophet’s first wife Khadijah. Ibrahim died when he was ten months old. On the day of Ibrahim's death, there was an eclipse of the sun. When some people began to attribute it to the Prophet's bereavement, he said: "The sun and the moon are two signs of the signs of God. Their light is not dimmed for any man's death. If you see them eclipsed, you should pray until they be clear."

The great change in Arabia alarmed the two superpowers, Byzantines and Persians. Their Governors, particularly the Byzantines, reacted with threats to attack Medinah. Instead of waiting, the prophet sent a small army to defend the northmost border of Arabia. In the remaining life of the Prophet, all of the major battles were fought on the northern front. The Prophet did not have a standing army. Whenever he received a threat, he called the Muslims and discussed with them the situation and gathered volunteers to fight any aggression.

The Prophet performed his first and last pilgrimage in 632 CE. One hundred twenty-thousand men and women performed pilgrimage that year with him. The Prophet received the last revelation during this pilgrimage. Two months later, Prophet Muhammad (s) fell ill and after several days died on Monday, 12 Rabi al-Awwal, the eleventh year after Hijra (June 8, 632 CE) in Medinah. He is buried in the same place where he died.

Prophet Muhammad lived a most simple, austere and modest life. He and his family used to go without cooked meal several days at a time, relying only on dates, dried bread and water. During the day he was the busiest man, as he performed his duties in many roles all at once as head of state, chief justice, commander-in-chief, arbitrator, instructor and family man. He was the most devoted man at night. He used to spend one- to two-thirds of every night in prayer and meditation. The Prophet's possession consisted of mats, blankets, jugs and other simple things even when he was the virtual ruler of Arabia. He left nothing to be inherited except a white mule (a gift from Muqawqis), few ammunition and a piece of land that he had made a gift during his life time. Among his last words were: "We the community of Prophets are not inherited. Whatever we leave is for charity."

Muhammad (s) was a man and a messenger of Allah (The One God). He is the last of the prophets [Qur'an 33:40] sent by Allah to guide man to the right path; Adam was the first Prophet. The Qur’an mentions twenty-five Prophets by name and provides a great insight of their mission, struggle and their communities. The Qur’an exonerates prophets from charges leveled against them in previous Scriptures. The Qur’an also mentions four previously revealed Scriptures: Suhoof (Pages) of Ibrahim (Abraham), Taurat ('Torah') as revealed to Prophet Moses, Zuboor ('Psalms') as revealed to Prophet David, and Injeel ('Evangel') as revealed to Prophet Jesus (pbuh). Islam requires belief in all prophets and revealed scriptures (original, non-corrupted) as part of the Articles of Faith. Muhammad (s) is greatly respected as the model of Qur’anic behavior. Muslims mention his name by adding "peace be upon him," a phrase used with the name of all prophets [e.g., Qur'an Surah 37: verses 79, 109, 120 and 130; also 33:56]. All sincere Muslims try to follow the Qur’an and the Prophet’s example to minute details. The account of every aspect of his life has been preserved (numerous daily accounts including his family life). Prophet Muhammad (s) has served as an example for all Muslims in all periods to modern times. He will remain a model example for all of humanity.

At the end of his mission, the Prophet was blessed with several hundred thousand followers (men and women) of Islam. Thousands prayed with him at the mosque and listened to his sermon. Hundreds of sincere Muslims would find every opportunity to be with him following five daily prayers and at other times. They used to seek his advice for their everyday problems, and listened attentively to the interpretation and application of revealed verses to their situation. They followed the message of the Qur’an and the Messenger of Allah with utmost sincerity, and supported him with every thing they had. The most excellent among them are Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, Ali, Talha, Zubair, 'Abdur Rahman ibn Auf, S'ad bin Abi Waqqas, S'ad bin Zaid, Abu 'Ubeidah, Hasan, Hussain, and several dozen others. They faithfully carried the message of Islam after the Prophet, and within ninety years the light of Islam reached Spain, North Africa, the Caucasus, northwest China and India.

Allah: Allah is the proper name in Arabic for The One and Only God, The Creator and Sustainer of the universe. It is used by the Arab Christians and Jews for the God (Eloh-im in Hebrew; 'Allaha' in Aramaic, the mother tongue of Jesus, pbuh). The word Allah does not have a plural or gender. Allah does not have any associate or partner, and He does not beget nor was He begotten. SWT is an abbreviation of Arabic words that mean 'Glory Be To Him.'
s or pbuh: Peace Be Upon Him. This expression is used for all Prophets of Allah.
ra: Radiallahu Anha (May Allah be pleased with her).
ra: Radiallahu Anhu (May Allah be pleased with him).