1.) What are lashes?
2.) What is the person lashed with?
3.) Does it have to be with anything specific?
4.) Who actually has to carry out the lashes punishment?
5.) Can anyone do it?
6.) What if the sin/crime has been committed in a non-Islamic country?
7.) Can that person be forgiven without the punishment?
8.) If not, how can they be forgiven?
First of all the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to advise people to avoid punishing people if there was anything doubtful.
For example for the punishment of fornication, there needs to be four just witnesses who have actually witnesses the act. In other words they have to see the female and male part meet!
Sorry about being so graphic!!
But, if someone comes to a judge and admits his sin then the judge has to carry out the punishment.
Right now we cannot perform the hadd punishments because there is no caliph; as the caliph appoints the judge.
1. Lashes is a strike
2. a type of wood or stick
3. as above
4. a qadi or judge after the court case has been firmly established.
5. no only on the judges order, the judge has to be appointed by the caliph
6. nothing happens
7. The can make sincere repentance which means that they must show remorse
8. See above